Istorijos transliacijos

Heraklio statula iš Hatros

Heraklio statula iš Hatros


Heraklio statula, Arkachonas

A Heraklio statula stovi Mauresque parke Arkachone, Žirondoje. Jis buvo įrengtas 1948 m., Minint Prancūzijos pasipriešinimo veiksmus kovojant su vokiečių okupacinėmis pajėgomis Antrojo pasaulinio karo metais. Vietos skulptoriaus Claude'o Bouscau statula yra 3,1 metro (10 pėdų) aukščio ir vaizduoja Senovės Graikijos didvyrį Heraklį po to, kai jis nugalėjo Nemėjaus liūtą. Netrukus po jos įrengimo du kartus Bouscau sumažino statulos varpą, atsižvelgdama į vietinių moterų skundus. Statulos varpą dažnai pavogdavo. 2016 m. Miesto taryba nusprendė, kad ji nebus pakeista visam laikui, bet laikinas varpos bus įrengtas, kai šalia statulos bus rengiami vieši renginiai.

Arkachono miestas Gironde siekė paminėti Prancūzijos pasipriešinimo pastangas Antrojo pasaulinio karo metais. Vietos kilmės skulptoriaus Claude'o Bouscau buvo paprašyta suprojektuoti skulptūrą, kuri stovėtų mieste Mauresque parkas („Maurų parkas“). [1] [2] Bouscau pasiūlė du reljefus, vaizduojančius „Pergalės“ ir „Pasipriešinimo“ figūras kartu su ugnies dubeniu. Miestas atmetė šį pasiūlymą kaip per brangų. Vietoj to Bouscau pasiūlė pastatyti vieną iš jo esamų darbų - graikų didvyrio Heraklo statulą. [2]

3,1 metro (10 pėdų) aukščio marmurinė skulptūra vaizdavo Heraklį, triumfuojantį virš Nemeo liūto, pirmąjį iš jo dvylikos darbų, kurie reiškė sąjungininkų pergalę prieš nacistinę Vokietiją. Statulą Bouscau baigė statyti Italijoje prieš karą, o jos modelis buvo fašistinio diktatoriaus Benito Mussolini priešininkas. Jame Heraklis pavaizduotas nuogas, išskyrus liūto kailį, kurį jis dėvi ant galvos, kaip apsiaustas. Jo dešinė ranka laiko už nugaros lazdą, kuria jis priblokšdavo gyvūną, o dešinė - dvi gyvates. Heraklio statula buvo patvirtinta ir atidaryta parke 1948 m. Rugpjūčio 22 d. [2] Netrukus po to, kai buvo pastatyta, Bouscau du kartus sumažino statulos varpą, nes vietinės ponios skundėsi, kad ji per didelė. Nepaisant to, kad senovės graikai Heraklį laikė vyriškumo simboliu. [1]

Statulos varpa buvo pavogta ir daug kartų neatgauta. [3] Kai jis buvo pavogtas 2010 m. Birželio mėn., Prireikė iki 2011 m. Sausio. [2] Iki 2016 m. Mero kabinete buvo varpos liejimo forma, iš kurios buvo išmesti pakaitalai. [4] 2016 m. Meras Yvesas Foulonas pareiškė: „Nenorėčiau, kad kas nors - net ir mano blogiausi priešai - patirtų, kas nutinka šiai statulai“, o varpos nebuvimas sukėlė tarybai gėdą kai kurių ceremonijų metu. prie statulos. [5]

2016 metais taryba nusprendė nepakeisti varpos. Vietoj to buvo pagaminta nuimama varpa ir ji bus sumontuota tik viešų renginių, vykstančių prie statulos, metu. Mero pavaduotoja Martine Phellipot buvo įpareigota užsisakyti nuimamą varpą dėl jos medicininės patirties. Ji pažymėjo: „Mes pasirinkome galimybę pagaminti išimamą protezą, kuris statomas ant statulos prieš kiekvieną ceremoniją. Tai vienintelis būdas išvengti nuolatinio persekiojimo po jo anatomijos“. [1] Nuimamą varpą padarė miesto taryboje dirbantis menininkas Thomas Castelnau. [6] Varpos įsukamas į statulą, kai jos nėra, lieka tik plonas metalinis strypas. [1] [6]


Turinys

Remiantis graikų mitologija, kurią priėmė etruskai ir romėnai, kai Heraklis turėjo atlikti dvylika darbų, vienas iš jų (dešimtas) turėjo atnešti Geryono galvijus iš tolimųjų vakarų ir atgabenti į Euristėją, tai žymėjo jo kelionių į vakarus mastą. . Strabo cituojama pamesta Pindaro ištrauka buvo ankstyviausia atsekamoji nuoroda šiame kontekste: „stulpai, kuriuos Pindaras vadina„ Gado vartais “, tvirtindamas, kad jie yra tolimiausios Heraklio pasiektos ribos“. [2] Kadangi nuo Herodoto buvo ryšys tarp Heraklio ir Melbarto, „Melkaro stulpai“ šventykloje netoli Gado/Gadeiros (šiuolaikinis Kadisas) kartais buvo laikomi tikrais. Herkulio stulpai. [3]

Platonas pastatė mitinę Atlantidos salą už „Heraklio ramsčių“. [4] Renesanso tradicija sako, kad stulpai buvo įspėti Ne plius ultra (taip pat Ne plius ultra, „nieko toliau“), tarnaujantis kaip įspėjimas jūreiviams ir navigatoriams toliau eiti. [5]

Remiantis kai kuriais romėnų šaltiniais, [6] eidamas į Hesperidų sodą Eritėjos saloje, Heraklis turėjo kirsti kadaise Atlasą buvusį kalną. Užuot lipęs į didįjį kalną, Heraklis panaudojo savo antžmogiškas jėgas, kad jį sutriuškintų. Taip jis sujungė Atlanto vandenyną su Viduržemio jūra ir suformavo Gibraltaro sąsiaurį. Viena skaldyto kalno dalis yra Gibraltaras, kita - Monte Hacho arba Jebel Musa. Šie du kalnai kartu buvo vadinami Heraklio ramsčiais, nors su pavadinimu buvo siejami kiti gamtos bruožai. [7]

Tačiau Diodoras Siculusas teigė, kad užuot sutriuškinęs sąsmauką, kad sukurtų Gibraltaro sąsiaurį, Heraklis „susiaurino“ jau esamą sąsiaurį, kad pabaisos iš Atlanto vandenyno nepatektų į Viduržemio jūrą. [8]

Kai kuriose versijose Heraklis pastatė abu, kad dangus būtų nutolęs nuo žemės, ir išvadavo Atlasą nuo jo pasmerkimo. [9]

Už Gade'o finikiečiai įkūrė keletą svarbių Maureanijos kolonijų (dabartiniame Maroke), kai finikiečių prekybinis laivynas išstūmė pro Heraklio stulpus ir pradėjo statyti bazių seriją palei Atlanto vandenyno pakrantę, pradedant Lixus šiaurėje, paskui Čella. ir galiausiai Mogadoras. [10]

Netoli rytinio Gade/Gadeira salos kranto (šiuolaikinis Kadisas, tiesiai už sąsiaurio) Strabo aprašo [11] vakariausią Tirijaus Heraklo šventyklą - dievą, su kuriuo graikai siejo finikiečių ir punų Melikartą. interpretatio graeca. Strabo pažymi [12], kad daugelis bronzos stulpų, esančių šventykloje, kurių kiekvienas yra aštuonių uolekčių aukščio, buvo plačiai paskelbti tikraisiais Heraklio stulpais, kurie aplankė tą vietą ir ten aukojo Herakliui. Tačiau Strabo mano, kad sąskaita yra apgaulinga, iš dalies pažymėdama, kad užrašai ant tų stulpų nieko neminėjo apie Heraklį, kalbėdami tik apie finikiečių patirtas išlaidas. Religinės reikšmės turėjo ir Tyre esančios Melqart šventyklos kolonos.

Sirijos mokslininkai žinojo apie ramsčius, stengdamiesi išversti graikų mokslo darbus į jų kalbą ir į arabų kalbą. Sirijos žinių rinkinys, žinomas kaip Ktaba d'ellat koll 'ellan (Visų priežasčių priežastis) neįprasta teigti, kad buvo trys, o ne dvi stulpeliai. [13]

In Inferno XXVI Dantė Aligjeris mini Ulisą apgaulingų patarėjų duobėje ir jo kelionę pro Heraklio stulpus. Ulisas pateisina pavojų savo jūreiviams tuo, kad jo tikslas yra įgyti žinių apie nežinomybę. Po penkių mėnesių navigacijos vandenyne Ulisas pamato Skaistyklos kalną, tačiau iš jo susiduria sūkurys, nuskandinantis jo laivą ir visa jame esanti už tai, kad jie drąsiai priartėjo prie skaistyklos, kol buvo gyvi, vien savo jėga ir protu.

Stulpai pasirodo kaip Ispanijos herbo šalininkai, kilę iš Ispanijos XVI amžiaus karaliaus Karolio I, kuris taip pat buvo Šventosios Romos imperatorius kaip Karolis V., impresos. Tai buvo italų humanisto Luigi Marliano idėja. [14] Jame yra šūkis Plius Ultra, Lotynų kalba toliau, tai reiškia, kad kolonos buvo vartai. Tai buvo pakeista iš frazės Nec plus ultra, Nieko daugiau anapus po to, kai buvo atrasta Amerika, kuri privertė nuo Antikos laikų įsivyravusią idėją apie Heraklio stulpus, kaip vakarietiškiausią gyvenamojo pasaulio kraštą.

Stulpai gerai matomi išgraviruotame tituliniame sero Franciso Bacono puslapyje „Magna“ instaliacija („Didysis atsinaujinimas“), 1620 m., Nebaigtas darbas, kurio antroji dalis buvo jo įtakinga Novum Organum. Šūkis palei pagrindą sako Daugialypis ir daugiapakopis mokslas („Daugelis praeis ir žinios bus didesnės“). Vaizdas buvo pagrįstas ramsčių naudojimu Ispanijos ir Habsburgų propagandoje.

Ispanijos pakrantėje, Los Barrios, yra Torres de Hercules, kurie yra du bokštai, įkvėpti Herkulio stulpai. Šie bokštai buvo aukščiausi Andalūzijoje, kol „Cajasol“ bokštas buvo baigtas Sevilijoje 2015 m.

Meksikos nacionalinio autonominio universiteto centrinės bibliotekos pietinėje sienoje - freska Istorinis kultūros vaizdavimas, sukurtas dailininko Juano O'Gormano, vaizduoja Heraklio stulpų vaizdavimą kaip aliuziją į kolonijinę Meksikos praeitį ir Karolio V. namus [15].

Ispanija, pasiekusi vadinamąjį Naująjį pasaulį, pakeitė originalų „Non plus ultra“ į „Plus ultra“, kaip buvo perkoduota jos herbe, reiškiančią pradžią naujai geografinių atradimų erai.


J. Paulio Getty muziejus

Šį vaizdą galima nemokamai atsisiųsti pagal „Getty“ atviro turinio programą.

Heraklio statula (Lansdowne Herakles)

Nežinoma 193,5 × 77,5 × 73 cm, 385,5575 kg (76 3/16 × 30 1/2 × 28 3/4 colio, 850 0001 svaro) 70.AA.109

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Šiuo metu nematomas

Alternatyvūs vaizdai

Priekinis vaizdas, pagrindinis vaizdas, krūtinės centre, po konservavimo

Galerijoje, vaizdas iš įėjimo į galeriją

Informacija apie objektą

Pavadinimas:

Heraklio statula (Lansdowne Herakles)

Menininkas/kūrėjas:
Kultūra:
Vietos:

Romos imperija (vieta sukurta)

Hadriano vila, šiaurinis rajonas, netoli kazino Fede, Tivolis, Italija (vieta rasta)

Vidutinis:
Objekto numeris:
Matmenys:

193,5 × 77,5 × 73 cm, 385,5575 kg (76 3/16 × 30 1/2 × 28 3/4 col., 850 0001 svar.)

Kredito linija:
Alternatyvus pavadinimas:

„Lansdowne Hercules“ (rodomas pavadinimas)

Skyrius:
Klasifikacija:
Objekto tipas:
Objekto aprašymas

Graikų didvyris Heraklis neša lazdą virš kairiojo peties ir dešinėje rankoje laiko liūto odą. Šie objektai padeda atpažinti figūrą, nes Heraklis dažnai buvo vaizduojamas su lazda ir Nemeano liūto oda, kurią jis nužudė kaip pirmąjį savo darbą. Kaip būdinga graikų didvyrių vaizdavimui, jaunasis Heraklis rodomas nuogas, nes graikai vyrų nuogumą laikė aukščiausia grožio forma. Joks kitas dievas ar herojus nėra taip dažnai vaizduojamas graikų ir romėnų mene kaip Heraklis.

Tikėtina, kad Lansdowne Herakles įkvėpė pamesta graikų statula, tikriausiai iš 300 -ųjų pr. Kr. Ši statula, rasta 1790 m. Netoli Romos imperatoriaus Hadriano vilos griuvėsių Tivoli mieste už Romos, buvo viena iš daugelio graikų skulptūros kopijų, užsakytų graikų kultūrą mylėjusio Hadriano. Viena iš labiausiai vertinamų J. Paulio Getty įsigijimų, statula gavo savo vardą iš Lordo Lansdowne'o, kuriam kažkada priklausė „Herakles“ ir kurį jis demonstravo savo namuose Londone. Restauravimo sritys apima statulos apatinę kairę koją ir abiejų rankų dalis.

Susiję darbai
Susiję darbai
Kilmė
Kilmė

Rasta: Hadriano vila, šiaurinė sritis, netoli kazino Fede, Tivoli, Italija (pirmą kartą įrašyta „Dallaway 1800“)

Thomas Jenkins (Roma, Italija), parduotas Williamui Petty-Fitzmaurice'ui, 1792 m.

1792 - 1805

Williamas Petty-Fitzmaurice'as, 2-asis Šelburno grafas, 1-oji Lansdowne markizė, 1737-1805 (Lansdowne namas, Londonas, Anglija), kurį iš savo dvaro įsigijo sūnus Johnas Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice'as, 1805 m.

1805 - 1809

John Henry Petty -Fitzmaurice, 1765-1809 (Lansdowne namas, Londonas, Anglija), paveldėdamas savo žmoną Mary Arabella Petty, 1809 m.

1809 - 1810

Mary Arabella Petty, Lansdowne marionetė, mirė 1833 m. (Lansdowne namas, Londonas, Anglija), parduota savo svainiui Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1810 m.

1810 - 1863

Henry Petty -Fitzmaurice, 3 -oji Lansdowne markizė, 1780 - 1863 (Lansdowne namas, Londonas, Anglija), paveldėdamas savo įpėdinius, 1863 m.

1863 - 1866
1866 - 1927
1927 - 1936

Henry William Edmund Petty -Fitzmaurice, 6 -oji Lansdowne markizė, Didžioji Britanija, 1872–1936 m. (Bowood House, Viltšyras, Anglija) [parduodama 5, 1930, 34 partija, nupirkta į „Lansdowne“ kolekciją ir perkelta į „Bowood House“, Viltšyre, Anglijoje.], Paveldint jo įpėdiniams, 1936 m.

1936 - 1944
1944 - 1951
1951 - 1970

J. Paul Getty, amerikietis, 1892 - 1976 (Sutton Place, Surrey, Anglija), padovanotas J. Paul Getty muziejui, 1970 m.

Parodos
Parodos
Be grožio: senienos kaip įrodymas (nuo 1997 m. Gruodžio 16 d. Iki 1999 m. Sausio 17 d.)
Senovės menas iš nuolatinės kolekcijos (1999 m. Kovo 16 d. - 2004 m. Gegužės 23 d.)
Bibliografija
Bibliografija

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Treshamas, Henris. „Lansdowne Marbles“ katalogas [. ] (Londonas: William Bulmer and Co., 1810), p. 8, ne. 37.

Dallaway, Jamesas. Iš statulų ir skulptūrų tarp senovės žmonių, kai kurie pavyzdžiai buvo išsaugoti Anglijoje (Londonas, 1816 m.), Pl. 40, pav. 14.6.

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„Apsilankymai privačiose galerijose“. Meno sąjunga (1847 m. Spalio 1 d.), P. 359.

Cunningham, Piteris. „Handbook for London: Past and Present“, t. 2 (Londonas: John Murray, 1849), p. 470.

Waagen, Gustav Friedrich. Meno lobiai Didžiojoje Britanijoje: būnant pagrindinių paveikslų, piešinių, skulptūrų, apšviestų šv., Amp. Ir amp. Kolekcijų sąskaita. 3 t. (Londonas: John Murray, 1854), t. 2, p. 149.

Tamsiai. Jonas. Londono įdomybės: eksponuojami rečiausi ir įspūdingiausi metropolio lankytini objektai. (Londonas: D. Bogue, 1855), p. 490.

Michaelis, Adolfas. "Die Privatsammlungen antiker Bildwerke Anglijoje". Archaeologische Zeitung 32 (1875), p. 37, ne. 35.

Michaelis, Adolfas Teodoras Friedrichas. Senovės marmurai Didžiojoje Britanijoje (Kembridžas: ​​University Press, 1882), p. 451, Nr. 61.

Smithas, A. H., red. Senovinių marmurų katalogas Lansdowne namuose, pagrįstas Adolfo Michaelio darbu. Su priedu, kuriame yra originalių dokumentų, susijusių su kolekcija. (Londonas: n.p., 1889), p. 9, 26-8, Nr. 61.

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Rowlandas, Benjaminas. Klasikinė tradicija Vakarų mene (Kembridžas, Masa: Harvardo universiteto leidykla, 1963), p. 166 pl. 115.

Furtwaengleris, Adolfas. Graikų meno šedevrai. Naujasis red. (Chicago: Argonaut Publishers, 1964), p. 296-301 pav. 125 pl. xliv.a.

Stothartas, Herbertas. J. Paul Getty muziejaus skulptūros vadovas. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1965), p. 24, ne. I-63, pl. 12.

Getty, J. Paul. Kolekcionavimo džiaugsmai (Niujorkas: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1965), p. 17-18, 68, 74.

Howardas, Seymour. „Lansdowne Herakles“ (1966 m. Red. Los Andželas: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1978).

Linfertas, Andreasas. Von Polyklet zu Lysipp. Polikletai Schule und ihr Verhaeltnis zu Skopas von Paros. Disertacija, Freiburgas: 1966, p. 35 ir toliau.

Dohrn, T. "Athletenkopf aus Lucus Feroniae", Antike Plastik, t. 6 (1967), p. 71-74, p. 73, n. 12.

Heintze, Helga von. "Doppelherme mit Hermes und Herakles", Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, Roemische Abteilung 73/74 (1966/1967), p. 251-255, p. 252 ir 254, pl. 91, 1.

Hill, Dorothy Kent. Knygos apžvalga, Amerikos žurnalas „Archeology“ 71 (1967), p. 206, Seymour Howard publikacijos apžvalga, The Lansdowne Herakles p. 206.

Suesserottas, Hansas Karlas. Griechische Plastik des 4.Jahrhunderts vor Christus. (Roma: Bretschneider, 1968), p. 147-48 pl. 31, 3.

Fuksas, Werneris. Die Skulptur der Griechen (Miunchenas: Hirmer Verlag, 1969), p. 101, 562 pav. 92-93, 678.

Richteris, Gisela M. A. Graikų skulptūra ir skulptoriai. 4 -asis leidimas. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970), p. 139, 213 pav. 754. 4 -asis leidimas.

Hilleris, Friedrichas. Formgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur griechischen Statue des Spaeten 5.Jahrhunderts prieš Chr. (Mainz: von Zabern, 1971), p. 17, 19 pav. 12.

Isler-Kerenyi, C. "Ein neuer Herakles des 4. Jahrhunderts v. Chr.", Archaeologischer Anzeiger, 1973, 3, p. 462 ir toliau, p. 468.

Vermeule, Kornelijus ir Normanas Neuerbergas. J. Paulo Getty muziejaus senovės meno katalogas (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1973), p. 6-9, nr. 9, serga.

Lattimore, Stivenas. „Dvi Heraklio statulos“. J. Paulo Getty muziejaus žurnalas 2 (1975), 17-26, 21-26, fig. 5-10.

Fredericksenas, Burtonas B., red. J. Paulio Getty muziejus: graikų ir romėnų seniena, Vakarų Europos paveikslai, XVIII amžiaus prancūzų dekoratyvinis menas (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1975), p. 19, 38.

Frel, Jiri, Burton B. Fredericksen ir Gillian Wilson. J. Paulio Getty muziejaus vadovas. 3 -asis leidimas. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 1975), p. 22.

Frelis, Jiri, Burtonas Fredericksenas ir Gillianas Wilsonas. J. Paulio Getty muziejaus vadovas. Red. Red. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 1976), p. 67.

Stewartas, Andrew. Skopas of Paros (Park Ridge, NJ: Noyes Press, 1977), p. 98-99, 104 pl. 42a-c.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel ir Gillian Wilson. Vadovas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus. 4 -asis leidimas. Sandra Morgan, red. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1978), p. 55-57, iliustr.

Frel, Jirí ir Zdravko Barov. Senienų išsaugojimas. Antikvariniai daiktai J. Paul Getty muziejuje. Lankstinukas 3. 1978 m. Gegužės – liepos mėn., Nr. 1.

Fredericksen, Burton B., Jiří Frel ir Gillian Wilson. J. Paulio Getty muziejaus vadovas. 5 -asis leidimas. (Malibu: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 1980), p. 38.

Vermeule, Cornelius C. Graikų ir romėnų skulptūra Amerikoje (Berkeley ir Londonas: University of California Press, 1981), Nr. 54.

Stewartas, Andrew. Skopas Malibu: Achilo galva iš Tegea ir kitos Skopas skulptūros J. Paul Getty muziejuje (Malibu: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1982), p. 49-53, pav. 52.

Raederis, Joachimas. Die statula Ausstattung der Villa Hadriana bei Tivoli (Frankfurtas prie Maino ir Bernas: Peteris Langas, 1983), p. 22, 53-54, 226.

Palagia, Olga. „Viltis Heraklis persvarstė“. Oksfordo archeologijos žurnalas 3, nr.1 (1984), p. 117, pav. 9.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 1 -asis leidimas. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1986), p. 10, 34, pav. 11.

Gurdal, M. ir S. Ozenir. „Der Herakles von Alanija“, Antike Welt. Zeitschrift fuer Archaeologie und Kulturgeschichte 17, 3 (1986), p. 23–26.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 2 -asis leidimas. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1988), p. 10, pav. 11.

Boardman, John, O. Palagia ir S. Woodford. - Heraklis. In Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae IV (1988), p. 728-838, p. 762, Nr. 659 pl. 489.

Jurijus, Eugenie. "Neue Kopfreplik des Herakles Lansdowne Salonikuose, muziejus 11 516", Antike Plastik 19, 1988. 31-33 p., Fig. 3-11. (Galva Salonikuose iš tikrųjų yra Richelieu Hermes, o ne Lansdowne Herakles kopija. JD).

Deissas, Josephas Jay. Herculaneum: Italijos palaidotas lobis (Malibu: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 1989), p. 81, serga. p. 81.

Kranz, P. "Der sogenannte Herakles Hope". Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, Roemische Abteilung 96 (1989), p. 393-405, p. 394, pl. 103, 2.

Stewartas, Andrew. Graikų skulptūra: tyrinėjimas (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990), p. 184-85, 187, passim, pav. 548.

Kreikenbom, Detlev. Bildwerke nach Polyklet: Kopienkritische Untersuchungen zu den männlichen statuarischen Typen nach polykletischen Vorbildern (Berlynas: Gebr. Mann, 1990), p. 34, 80 (įsk. Nr. 296), 173-74 kat. ne. III 40 pls. 169c-170.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 3 -asis leidimas. (Malibu: J. Paul Getty muziejus, 1991), p. 6, 26.

Vaughanas, Gerardas. - Albacini ir jo anglų globėjai. Kolekcijų istorijos žurnalas 3, 2 numeris (1991 m. Sausis), p. 183–197, p. 194–195, pav. 11.

Podany, Džeris. "Suklastotas, sugadintas ar sulaužytas? Sukurti nuostolių kompensavimo metodus senienoms." Nuostolių kompensavimas: techniniai ir filosofiniai klausimai: 1994 m. Birželio 10 d. Objektų specialybės grupės sesijos medžiaga, 22 -asis metinis susirinkimas, Nešvilis, TN. Objektai Specialty Group Postprints, t. 2. Ellen Pearlstein ir Michele Marincola, sudarytojai. (Vašingtonas, JAV: Amerikos konservavimo ir meno kūrinių institutas, 1994), išb. .1 ir .2 paskelbti žr. Ištraukas. dėl detalių.

Vikela, Evgenia. Die Weihreliefs aus dem Athener Pankrates-Heiligtum am Ilissos: Religionsgeschichtliche Bedeutung und Typologie (Berlynas: Gebr. Mann, 1994), p. 216-19, pl. 40, pav. 1.

MacDonald, William A. ir Pinto, John A. Hadrian's Villa and its Legacy (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995), p. 300-301, pav. 391.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 4 -asis leidimas. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 1997), p. 26.

Settis, Salvatore. I Greci: Storia, cultura, arte, società (Turinas: G. Einaudi, 1997), p. 1289.

Kansteiner, Sascha. Heraklis: Die Darstellungen in der Grossplastik der Antike (Ph.D. diss, 1997), (Köln: Böhlau, 2000).

Badinou, Panayota. Olympiaka: Anthologie des sources grecques (Bienne, Šveicarija: Tarptautinis olimpinis komitetas, 2000 [?]), P. 52.

Barzda, Marija ir Johnas Hendersonai. Klasikinis menas: nuo Graikijos iki Romos. Oksfordas: 2001, p. 9, pav. 7 95-96, pav. 66, serga.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 6 -asis leidimas. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 2001), p. 26.

J. Paulo Getty muziejaus senienų kolekcijos vadovas (Los Andželas: 2002), p. Xi-xii, 160-61, pav. 4.

Newby, Zahra. „Skulptūrinė ekspozicija vadinamojoje Hadriano vilos Palaestroje“. Mitteilungen des deutschen Archaologischen Instituts, Romische Abteilung 109 (2002), p. 70-71, pav. 8.

Grossmanas, Janet Burnett. Žvelgiant į graikų ir romėnų skulptūrą akmenyje (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 2003), p. 57, iliustr.

Spivey, Nigel ir Squire, Michaelas. Klasikinio pasaulio panorama (Los Andželas: „Getty Publications“, 2004), p. 90, pav. 144.

Newby, Zahra. Graikų sportininkai romėnų pasaulyje (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 116-19, pav. 4.16.

Risseris, Erikas ir Jensas Daehneris. „Liejantis satyras iš Castel Gandolfo: istorija ir išsaugojimas“. In Object in Context: Crossing Conservation Boundaries. David Saunders, Joyce H. Townsend ir Sally Woodcock, red. (Londonas: IIC, 2006), p. 190–96, pav. 1.

Stourtonas, Džeimsas. Didieji mūsų laikų kolekcininkai: meno kolekcionavimas nuo 1945 m. (Londonas: Scala, 2007), p. 124-25.

J. Paulio Getty muziejaus kolekcijų vadovas. 7 -asis leidimas. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 2007), p. 8-9, iliustr.

Mattusch, Carol C. ir kt., Red. Pompėja ir romėnų vila: menas ir kultūra aplink Neapolio įlanką, pvz. katė. (Vašingtonas, D.C .: Nacionalinė dailės galerija, su Thames ir amp. Hudson, 2008), p. 83, pav. 12.

Gallazzi, Claudio, Barbel Kramer ir Salvatore Settis, red. Il Papiro di Artemidoro (Milanas: Edizioni Universitaire di Lettere Economia Diritto, 2008), p. 574, pav. 5.44.

Levkoffas, Marija. L. "Herstas ir antika". Apolonas (2008 m. Spalio mėn.), 53–59.

Calcani, Giuliana. Skopas di Paros (Roma: G. Bretschneider, 2009), 19-20, 48, 65 p.

Brand, M., "Home and Away. Meno kūriniai kaip piliečiai ir migrantai" In Crossing Cultures: Conflict, Migration and Convergence, redagavo J. Anderson (Melburnas: Miegunyah Press, 2009), 24-25, pav. 3.

J. Paulo Getty muziejaus senienų kolekcijos vadovas. Red. Red. (Los Andželas: J. Paulio Getty muziejus, 2010), p. Xii, pav. 4, 160.

Lapatinas, Kenetas. „La Villa Getty“, ikonos rekonstrukcija. Monumentalus (2010), p. 72-75, pav. 1, 5, (naudojamas vaizdas yra statula galerijoje).

Wohlmayr, Wolfgang. Die Romische Kunst: Ein Handbuch (Mainz: Zabern, 2011), p. 149-50, pav. 75 (aktoriai).

Di Mauro, Albertas. Italy Art LA, edukacinė brošiūra (Los Andželas: Los Andželo italų kultūros institutas, 2012), p. 22.

Platz-Horster, Gertrud. „Heraklis Brabante: Die Amethyst-Gemme aus Sint-Oedenrode“. BABesch 88 (2013), p. 191, 196–98, pav. 10, serga.

Stewartas, Andrew. „Beviltiškai ieškau Skopų“. In Ho Skopas kai ho kosmos tou: Skopas of Paros and His World. Dora Katsōnopoulou ir Andrew Stewart, red. (Atėnai: Tarptautinė Paroso ir Kikladų archeologijos konferencija, 2013), p. 24-26, fig. 3-4, 6, serga.

Mattusch, Carol C. Išliekanti bronza: senovės menas, šiuolaikiniai vaizdai (Los Andželas: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2014), p. 154-55, pav. 99.

Kansteiner, Sascha ir kt., Red. Der neue Overbeck (DNO): Schriftquellen zu den bildenden Künsten der Griechen. Grupė III: Spätklassik: Bildhauer des 4. Jhs. prieš Chr., DNO 1799-2677. (Berlynas: De Gruyter, 2014), p. 441, Nr. 16, 2309.

Thompsonas, Erin L. Turėjimas: įdomi privačių kolekcininkų istorija nuo Antikos iki šių dienų (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016), p. 118-19, pav. 14 [išb. .1-.2 paskelbta.].

Scott, David A. Menas: autentiškumas, restauravimas, klastojimas. (Los Andželas: Cotsen Institute of Archeology Press, 2016), p. 198-200, 205, fig. 5.12-13.

Angelicoussis, Elžbieta. „Lansdowne“ klasikinių rutulių kolekcijos rekonstrukcija. 2 t. (Miunchenas: Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 2017), t. 1, p. 58, 66 (iliustr.), 69 (iliuzija), 85 (iliuzija), 93, 109 (iliuzija), 110-111, 112 (iliuzija) t. 2, 118-125 b. L., Nr. 14, fig. 14.1-14.6.

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Heraklio politinė reikšmė

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. "Jaunatviškas Herkulas". Oksfordas, Jungtinė Karalystė: Ashmolean meno ir archeologijos muziejus, 1483-1520.

Michelangelo Buonarroti ir rsquos meniniai talentai įamžinti puikiais meno kūriniais, tokiais kaip Deividas ir Siksto koplyčios lubas, kurias šiuolaikiška publika gali apžiūrėti asmeniškai. Tačiau taip nėra mažos dalies menininko ir rsquos kūrinių, kurie buvo prarasti per 500 metų nuo jo gyvenimo, atveju. 1492 m. Mikelandželas nupiešė milžinišką mitologinio herojaus Herkulio statulą. Statula nematyta nuo 1713 m., Tačiau istorikai gali suprasti šio kūrinio reikšmę iš įrašų apie jo judėjimą per visą istoriją. Ji turėjo daugybę žymių istorinių asmenybių, tokių kaip Piero de & rsquo Medici, Filippo Strozzi ir Prancūzijos karalius Pranciškus I. Nors statula Heraklis buvo prarasta iki XVIII amžiaus pradžios, jos numatyta politinė prasmė tiek Mediči, tiek pačiam Mikelandželui buvo prarasta ją išvežus iš Florencijos.

In 1492, Lorenzo de&rsquo Medici the Magnificent passed away, which not only vacated the patriarch position of the family, but also the role of Michelangelo&rsquos patron and mentor. In their biographies of Michelangelo, both Ascanio Condivi and Giorgio Vasari state that Michelangelo was so struck with grief by the passing of Lorenzo that he carved an eight foot statue of Hercules in memoriam.1 As Michael Hirst and many other scholars suspect, the block of marble required for such a statue was most likely too expensive for Michelangelo to purchase himself which leads to the question of a commission.2

Michelangelo, Buonarroti, and Robert Walter Carden. Michelangelo a Record of His Life as Told in His Own Letters and Papers. London: Constable & company ltd., 1913.

After the death of Lorenzo, Piero de&rsquo Medici was expected to take his father&rsquos place as the head of the most powerful family in Florence. Condivi and Vasari both deny that Michelangelo worked seriously for Piero de&rsquo Medici and offer instead an anecdote that Piero requested Michelangelo to make a sculpture out of snow after a winter storm.3 This story works to eliminate Michelangelo&rsquos possible connection to Piero, who would be responsible for the exile of the Medici from Florence in 1494, which earned him the title &ldquothe foolish.&rdquo

However, a letter from Michelangelo to his father, Lodovico Buonarroti, in August of 1497 establishes his and Piero&rsquos relationship as one of patron and artist as the Michelangelo states, &ldquoI was instructed by Piero de&rsquo Medici to make a statue and I have bought the piece of marble for it.&rdquo4 Michelangelo&rsquos relationship with Piero is not the only evidence to support that the commission of the Hercules was for the Medici. Maria Ruvoldt cites in Michelangelo&rsquos Slaves and the Gift of Liberty, &ldquoWhen he fled Florence, Piero left behind a wealth of objects that were distributed by a committee of six Sindaci appointed by the republic to settle Medici debts. Among them was a marble Hercules restored on 11 August 1495 to a certain &lsquo&lsquoBonaroti,&rsquo&rsquo who is surely Michelangelo.&rdquo5

By acknowledging the Heraklis as a Medici commission rather than an independent work, the political and social significance of the subject of the mythological hero changes. While art historians cannot know whether the subject of Hercules was chosen by Michelangelo or Piero, such a mythological subject carries a strong political message to the benefit of Piero. Leopold D. Ettlinger, in Hercules Florentinus , states &ldquoThe city government, he argued, picked on this specific symbol in order to tell all the world that Florence, like Hercules, was conscious of her power and would not allow any obstacles to stand in the way of her final goal: a pax florentina.&rdquo6 By commissioning a gigantic statue of Hercules, Piero aligned the Medici family with the strength of Florence and its history. Although ultimately unsuccessful, Piero tried to establish himself as a strong political figure similar to his &ldquomagnificent&rdquo father.

One of the many Hercules works of art owned by Lorenzo de' Medici.

Antonio Pollaiuolo, Hercules and Anteus, bronze. Florence, Museo Nazionale.

The claim made by Vasari and Condivi that the Heraklis was a tribute to Lorenzo de&rsquo Medici is not an empty one. The Medici Palace had displayed Hercules &ldquotime and again in paint and bronze, for Lorenzo il Magnifico was surrounded by representations of Hercules and his exploits.&rdquo7 Lorenzo&rsquos own fixation on the mythological hero could have been a reflection of how he saw himself as well as an attempt to connect himself with Florentine iconography. Michelangelo and Piero would have been very familiar with Lorenzo&rsquos many commissions of Hercules-centered works. Michelangelo might have seen this as an opportunity not only for a commission but also as a way to honor a man who greatly inspired his life. Similarly, Piero de&rsquo Medici may have seen this as a way to further connect himself with his father&rsquos legacy in Florence. The Heraklis as a Medici commission holds a strong meaning for both Michelangelo and Piero de&rsquo Medici as they tried to reestablish themselves after the death of the patron and father, Lorenzo de&rsquo Medici.

Unfortunately for Piero de&rsquo Medici, the Heraklis statue could not save him from the anger of the Florentine people when the Medici were exiled in 1494. As previously stated by Ruvoldt, in 1495 the Heraklis statue was presumably returned to Michelangelo as the Medici possessions were distributed.8 With the statue back in his hands, Michelangelo still held the power to determine the political significance of the piece.

The Strozzi Palace which held the Heraklis until 1529.

With the Medici out of the Florence, it is not surprising that Michelangelo turned to another powerful Florentine family, the Strozzi&rsquos. Vasari briefly mentions that the Heraklis &ldquostood for many years in the Strozzi Palace and was considered a marvelous work.&rdquo9 William E. Wallace concludes that the gift of the Heraklis to the Strozzi was &ldquoa shift in alliance&rdquo and &ldquothe seeking of a new patron.&rdquo10 In this way, the Hercules continued to be of political significance at a turning point in Michelangelo&rsquos life. For the Strozzi, the Heraklis still symbolized Florentine strength but instead it connected their family to the political scene rather than the Medici.

When Michelangelo handed over the Heraklis to the Strozzi family, he lost any claim he had to the ownership of the piece. Filippo Strozzi, not unlike Michelangelo and Piero de&rsquo Medici, used the Heraklis as a means of gaining political favor. Caroline Elam describes the tense political atmosphere in Florence during the late 1520&rsquos and the impending invasion of the Spanish imperial army.11 Filippo Strozzi used his connection to Battista della Palla to deepen the Florentine connection with France for support.12

In 1529, Filippo's son Piero wrote to him that he had handed over the Heraklis statue to della Palla as a gift to the King of France, Francis I.13 Once again, the Heraklis was used a tool of political gain however, this time without the input of Michelangelo. In a letter to Filippo from his brother, Lorenzo, he states, &ldquomany people - and especially Michelangelo - are unhappy that we are depriving ourselves of it&rdquo in reference to the departure of the Heraklis from Florence.14 Ruvoldt attributes Michelangelo&rsquos displeasure to &ldquowounded pride&rdquo because Filippo removed the statue after over twenty years of ownership.15 While the movement of the Heraklis from Florence to France was a political statement, it was not the political statement that Michelangelo intended to make in the context of Florentine society.

As a lost work of art, the Heraklis is only accessible through its known history and reconstructions from other artists. Kai Heraklis reached France, it was installed in the Palace of Fontainebleau until the destruction of the Jardin de l'Etang in 1713, when it disappeared from written history.16 As it stood in the French garden, the statue did not hold the same significance to its French audience as it would have to the Florentines. While art historians cannot confront the piece in person, the historical evidence of Hercules iconography in Florence, letters written by those involved, and the accounts of Michelangelo&rsquos life help put together a history of this work as it moved through time and space. Michelangelo could not have predicted the exile of the Medici, the fall of Florence, and the other numerous events that led to the statue passing from Florence to France. Taking all this into account and the lack of a physical piece of art, the Heraklis can only be immortalized through its use as a political chess piece in the fluctuating political environment of sixteenth century Florence.

Ascanio Condivi, and Hellmut Wohl, The Life of Michel-Angelo (Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999), 15. Giorgio Vasari, Julia Conaway Bondanella, and Peter E. Bondanella, The Lives of the Artists (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 421-422.

Michael Hirst, Michelangelo, Carrara, and the Marble for the Cardinal's Pietà (London: The Burlington Magazine,1985), 155.

Condivi, and Wohl. The Life, 15. Vasari, Bondanella, and Bondanella, The Lives of the Artists , 421-422.

Michelangelo, Buonarroti, and Robert Walter Carden, Michelangelo a Record of His Life as Told in His Own Letters and Papers (London: Constable & company ltd., 1913), 8-9.

Maria Ruvoldt, Michelangelo's Slaves and the Gift of Liberty (Chicago: Renaissance Quarterly, 2012), 1037.

Leopold D. Ettlinger, Hercules Florentinus (Florence: Mitteilungen des Kunsthistorischen Institutes in Florenz,1972), 122.

Ettlinger, Hercules Florentinus , 128.

Ruvoldt, Michelangelo's Slaves , 1037.

Vasari, Bondanella, and Bondanella, The Lives of the Artists , 421-422.

William E. Wallace, How Did Michelangelo Become a Sculpture? (Online: Academia.edu, 1992), 156

Caroline Elam, Art in the Service of Liberty: Battista Della Palla, Art Agent for Francis I (Chicago: I Tatti Studies in the Italian Renaissance 5, 1993), 43-45.


12 Historically Significant Things Destroyed Due to Human Stupidity

Our planet is packed full of amazing attractions. Some of the major attractions are historic structures and artifacts that give us a glimpse into lost civilizations. But, the activities of many people among the seven billion who inhabit this planet pose a risk to the most spectacular and ancient landmarks. This has been proved in recent times as well. In the last few decades, numerous historical structures and artifacts have been destroyed because of tourism, vandalism, and war, and some of them are destroyed beyond repair. Keep reading to find out 12 historically significant things destroyed due to human stupidity.

1. In 2015, two tourists destroyed the 300-year-old Statue of the Two Hercules used as the symbol of the Italian city of Cremona when they climbed over it to take a perfect selfie.

Image credits: Zigres/Shutterstock.com

Two tourists made headlines in Italy, but for a bad reason.

A 300-year-old Statue of the Two Hercules has long been a symbol of the city of Cremona in northern Italy. It is said that the legendary mythological demi-God discovered the city.

But, in 2015, two tourists, obsessed with selfies, smashed the iconic statue while trying to climb over it to get a selfie. It is the portion of the crown that was destroyed by the tourist’s lack of etiquette.

The priceless statue was built in 1700 and was originally built to put over Cremona’s city gates.

It looks like people will do anything for a perfect snap. (source)

2. In 2013, a 2,300-year-old Mayan pyramid was destroyed to make way for a road fill project by a construction company in Noh Mul, Belize.

The small Caribbean nation of Belize is well known for its lovely beaches, outstanding barrier reef, rain forest, and extensive relics left by the Mayans.

But, In 2013, the country lost one of its historic monuments, because of a construction company. A 2,300-year-old Mayan pyramid at Noh Mul was destroyed by bulldozers to make fill for roads.

According to reports, the 65-foot-tall pyramid was constructed around 250 BCE with hand-cut limestone bricks, which was a quality material used by the companies to improve the quality of local roads, and it’s prized by contractors.

“This is one of the worst that I have seen in my entire 25 years of archaeology in Belize,” was how it was described by the archaeologist, John Morris, from the Institute of Archaeology, in Belize. (source)

3. Two teenagers in 2016 damaged a 5,000-year-old rock carving of skiing by scratching along the image lines using a sharp object to make it more visible and distinct in the Norwegian Island of Tro.

The ancient skier carving, before it was damaged. (Nordland County) Image credits: Smithsonianmag.com

The Norwegian island of Tro has a 5,000-year-old rock carving depicting a man skiing. The carving was one of the world’s earliest indications of skiing, and it also inspired the symbol of the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer.

Sadly, in 2016, two teenagers with good intentions ruined the ancient carving, in an attempt to make it more visible and clearer. They used a sharp object to scratch along the image’s linings to make it more distinct.

Reports suggest that original carvings were destroyed and are beyond repair. “It’s a tragedy because it’s one of the most famous Norwegian historical sites,” the mayor of the nearby Alstahaug Municipality told the reporters.

The boys realized their mistake and made a public statement apologizing for their ignorant behavior.

Officials didn’t disclose their names to prevent any potential abuse towards the teenagers. (source)

4. In 1759, Reverend Francis Gastrell demolished William Shakespeare’s house after buying it six years before in 1753 because he was not happy with the tourist surge in the place, and also the people of the town were not happy with his attitude.

Stratford-upon-Avon- Shakespeare’s New Place. Image credits: Tripadvisor

When Reverend Francis Gastrell bought Shakespeare’s house, Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1753, he quickly became frustrated with the rising number of tourists at the place. In addition to that, he had issues with the local officials over taxes.

People in the town were already mad at him for cutting down a mulberry tree planted by Shakespeare in the garden. Then, he did something which was probably unthinkable for many Shakespeare lovers. Six years after buying the house, he destroyed the former home of one of the most famous poets in history.

The people of Stratford-upon-Avon were devastated when they heard about this. Gastrell’s popularity plummeted drastically, and eventually, he had to get out of the town. (source)

5. In 1941, When Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler, sent three million German soldiers to invade the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa, they looted and destroyed precious artworks from the famous Amber Room in Russia.

Image credits: Giggel/web.archive.org

The Amber Room, which was decorated with six tones of Amber and semi-precious stones by Danish amber craftsman Gottfried Wolfram, was sent to Russia in 18 large containers in the 1700s.
The room built with international collaboration was set up in the Winter House in St. Petersburg as a part of a European art collection.

The magnificent room of art was used as a private meditation room, a gathering room, and sometimes as a trophy cabinet. According to historians, the total estimated value of the precious room would be $142 million in today’s world.

In1941, Adolf Hitler started Operation Barbarossa, which led to the invasion of the Soviet Union by three million German soldiers. Thousands of art collections were looted during that period from the illustrious Amber Room, as Nazis believed they belonged to Germans since they were made by Germans. (source)

6. In 2015, Islamic State militants destroyed the ancient Hatra site in Iraq, built 2,000 years ago.

Hatra. Image credits: Véronique Dauge/Wikimedia

The Islamic State, known for its violent, extremist ideas, has killed thousands of people and forced many others to flee their homes. In addition to ruining people’s lives, they destroyed many historic artifacts, and monuments as well.

In 2015, militants associated with the Islamic State demolished the historical archaeological site of Hatra in Iraq, which was built 2,000 years ago.

The iconic historical site, which is 110 km southwest of Mosul, was a secured city that stood strong against the invasions of Romans because of its thick walls. Not only that, Hatra city contained several temples and sculptures dedicated to gods like Apollo and Poseidon.

Officials suggested that militants had used explosives and bulldozers to smash down the buildings.

According to IS, which captured a large proportion of Iraq and Syria, shrines and statues are “false idols” that have to go down to pieces. “The destruction of Hatra marks a turning point in the appalling strategy of cultural cleansing underway in Iraq,” head of UNESCO, Irina Bokova mentioned in a statement. (source)


Reconstructing the Lost Hercules

In 1493, Michelangelo carved an eight foot tall marble statue of the mythological hero Hercules. Unfortunately, this sculpture was lost after sometime in France at the Palace of Fontainebleau. Due to its lost nature, this exhibit centers around the movement of the piece from Florence to France and the numerous hands it passed through on this journey. The mapping portion of the exhibit showcases the most probable trajectory of the piece from its conception to its last known location. By showing the movement of Hercules with a map and timeline, one is able to get a different perspective of how a work of art can be so removed from its origin and what that means for the interpretation of this work in history. The written portion of the exhibit explores the political significance of the Heraklis as it changes hands through history. The exhibit aims to answer the question regarding Michelangelo's intentent for his Heraklis statue and how the interputaion of his work changed as its location changed.


The J. Paul Getty Museum

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Statue of Hercules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Unknown 193.5 cm (76 3/16 in.) 70.AA.109.1

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Object Details

Title:

Statue of Hercules (Lansdowne Herakles)

Artist/Maker:
Culture:
Place:

Hadrian's Villa, northern area, near the Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italy (Place Found)

Medium:
Object Number:
Matmenys:
Credit Line:
Department:
Classification:
Object Type:
Related Works
Related Works
Kilmė
Kilmė

Found: Hadrian's Villa, northern area, near the Casino Fede, Tivoli, Italy (first recorded in Dallaway 1800)

Thomas Jenkins (Rome, Italy), sold to William Petty Fitzmaurice, 1792.

1792 - 1805

William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 2nd earl of Shelburne, 1st marquess of Lansdowne, 1737 - 1805 (Lansdowne House, London, England), acquired from his estate by his son, John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1805.

1805 - 1809

John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1765 - 1809 (Lansdowne House, London, England), by inheritance to his wife, Mary Arabella Petty, 1809.

1809 - 1810

Mary Arabella Petty, marchioness of Lansdowne, died 1833 (Lansdowne House, London, England), sold to her brother-in-law, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1810.

1810 - 1863

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd marquess of Lansdowne, 1780 - 1863 (Lansdowne House, London, England), by inheritance to his heirs, 1863.

1863 - 1866
1866 - 1927
1927 - 1936

Henry William Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice, 6th marquess of Lansdowne, British, 1872 - 1936 (Bowood House, Wiltshire, England) [offered for sale, The celebrated collection of ancient marbles: property of the most honourable the Marquess of Lansdowne, Christie's, March 5, 1930, lot 34, bought back into the Lansdowne Collection and transferred to Bowood House, Wiltshire, England.], by inheritance to his heirs, 1936.

1936 - 1944
1944 - 1951
1951 - 1970

J. Paul Getty, American, 1892 - 1976, donated to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1970.

Bibliografija
Bibliografija

Dallaway, James. Anecdotes of the Arts in England (London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1800), p. 341, no. 7.

Knight, Richard Payne. Specimens of antient sculpture: Aegyptian, Etruscan, Greek and Roman: selected from different collections in Great Britain by the Society of Dilettanti, vol. 1. (London: T. Payne, 1809), pl. XL.

Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Earl of Elgin's collection of sculptured marbles. (London, Printed for J. Murray, by W. Bulmer and Co., 1816), pp. 91-2, 95, 99, 104.

Dallaway, J. "Charles Townley, Esq." In Illustrations of the Literary History of the Eighteenth Century: consisting of authentic memoirs and original letters of eminent persons. vol. 3. Nichols, John, ed. (London: n.p., 1818), p. 252.

Müller, Karl Otfried. "Nachrichten über einige Antiken-Sammlungen in England: (Aus den Tagebüchern des Prof. Ottf. Müller in Göttingen)." Amalthea oder Museum der Kunstmythologie und bildlichen Alterthumskunde 3 (Leipzig, G. J. Göschen, 1825), pp. 241-2.

"Lansdowne House." A Monthly Magazine [Godey's Lady's Book] 9 (July, 1834), p. 24.

Green, Thomas. "Diary of a lover of literature [Thomas Green's Diary, 28 Jun. 1804]". Gentleman's Magazine, second ser., 1, vol. 155 (January - June, 1834), p. 252.

Clarac, Cte. Frédéric de. Musée de sculpture antique et moderne, ou description historique et graphique du Louvre et de toutes ses parties (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1841-53), V (1839-41) pl. 788, no. 1973 (1851) p. 14.

Jameson, Mrs. Anna. Companion to the Most Celebrated Private Galleries of Art in London (London: Saunders and Otley, 1844), pp. 334-5.

"Visits to private galleries." Art Union (October 1, 1847), p. 359.

Cunningham, Peter. A Handbook for London: Past and Present, vol. 2 (London: John Murray, 1849), p. 470.

Timbs. John. Curiosities of London: exhibiting the most rare and remarkable objects of interest in the metropolis. (London: D. Bogue, 1855), p. 490.

Michaelis, Adolf. "Die Privatsammlungen antiker Bildwerke in England." Archaeologische Zeitung 32 (1875), p. 37, no. 35.

Michaelis, Adolf Theodor Friedrich. Ancient Marbles in Great Britain (Cambridge: University Press, 1882), p. 451, no. 61.

Smith, A. H., ed. A Catalogue of the Ancient Marbles at Lansdowne House, Based Upon the Work of Adolf Michaelis. With an Appendix Containing Original Documents Relating to the Collection. (London: n.p., 1889), pp. 9, 26-8, no. 61.

"Käufliche Gipsabgüsse." Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts V (1890), p. 161, no. 61 [as cast by Brucciani].

Wheatley, Henry Benjamin. London, past and present its history, associations, and traditions, vol. 2. (London: J. Murray, 1891), p. 366.

Clinch, George. Mayfair and Belgravia: Being an Historical Account of the Parish of St. George, Hanover Square. (London: Truslove & Shirley, 1892), p. 79.

Furtwängler, Adolf. Meisterwerke der griechischen Plastik: Kunstgeschichtliche Untersuchungen. (Leipzig: Giesecke & Devrient, 1893), pp. 515-20, fig. 92.

Kalkmann, August. Die Proportionen des Gesichts in der griechischen Kunst. ( Berlin: G. Reimer, 1893), pp. 60, 90 no. 34, 97 no. 83, 103 no. 34, 108 no. 83.

Winnefeld, Hermann. Die villa des Hadrian bei Tivoli. Jahrbuch des Kaiserlich Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts: Ergänzungsheft, vol. 3. (Berlin, G. Reimer, 1895), p. 162.

Reinach, Salomon. Repertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine. 6 t. (Paris: E. Leroux, 1897-1930), vol. 1 (1897), p. 464, pl. 788, no. 1973.

Gusman, Pierre. La villa impériale de Tibur (villa Hadriana). (Paris: A. Fontemoing, 1904), pp. 282-4, fig. 488.

Chancellor, Edwin Beresford. The private palaces of London: past and present. (London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., 1908), p. 281.

Baedeker, Karl. London and its environs: handbook for travellers. (Leipzig: K. Baedeker, 1911), p. 269, no. 61.

D. Brucciani & Co. Catalogue of Casts for Schools. (London: D. Brucciani & Co., 1914), p. 5 no. 2883, cover ill. [cast].

Baedeker, Karl. London and its environs: handbook for travellers. (Leipzig: K. Baedeker, 1923), "Lansdowne", no. 61.

Picard, Charles. La sculpture antique de Phidias à l'ère byzantine. (Paris: H. Laurens, 1926), p. 84.

Podany, Jerry. "Faked, flayed or fractured? Development of loss compensation approaches for antiquities." In Loss compensation : technical and philosophical issues : proceedings of the Objects Specialty Group Session, June 10, 1994, 22nd annual meeting, Nashville, TN. Objects Specialty Group Postprints, vol. 2. Ellen Pearlstein and Michele Marincola, compilers. (Washington, D.C. : American Institute for Conservation and Artistic Works, 1994), pp. 47, 56, figs. 18-19.

Calcani, Giuliana. Skopas di Paros (Rome: G. Bretschneider, 2009), pp. 19-20, 48, 65.

Platz-Horster, Gertrud. "Herakles in Brabant: Die Amethyst-Gemme aus Sint-Oedenrode." BABesch 88 (2013), pp. 191, 196-198, fig. 10, ill.

Stewart, Andrew. "Desperately Seeking Skopas." In Ho Skopas kai ho kosmos tou: Skopas of Paros and His World. Dora Katsōnopoulou and Andrew Stewart, eds. (Athens: International Conference on the Archaeology of Paros and the Cyclades, 2013), p. 24-26, figs. 3-4, 6, ill.

Kansteiner, Sascha, et al., eds. Der neue Overbeck (DNO): die antiken Schriftquellen zu den bildenden Künsten der Griechen. Band III: Spätklassik: Bildhauer des 4. Jhs. v. Chr., DNO 1799-2677. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2014), p. 441, no. 16, 2309.

Scott, David A. Art: authenticity, restoration, forgery. (Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology Press, 2016), pp. 198-200, 205, figs. 5.12-13.

Thompson, Erin L. Possession: The Curious History of Private Collectors from Antiquity to the Present (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2016), pp. 118-119, fig. 14.

Angelicoussis, Elizabeth. Reconstructing the Lansdowne Collection of Classical Marbles. 2 t. (Munich: Hirmer Verlag GmbH, 2017), vol. 1, pp. 58, 66 (illus.), 69 (illus.), 85 (illus.), 93, 109 (illus.), 110-111, 112 (illus.) vol. 2, pp. 118-125, no. 14, figs. 14.1-14.6.

This information is published from the Museum's collection database. Updates and additions stemming from research and imaging activities are ongoing, with new content added each week. Help us improve our records by sharing your corrections or suggestions.

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Hercules and Diomedes

Robert Langdon and Sienna wander in the Palazzo Vecchio in search of new clues, and a very special statue catches their attention.

We are talking about the statue of Hercules and Diomedes in the Hall of the Five Hundred.

This statue—located next to the Genius of Victory by Michelangelo and Florence triumphant over Pisa by Giambologna—belongs to a series of statues representing The Labors of Hercules.

Cosimo I de’ Medici commissioned twelve statues to sculptor Vincenzo de’ Rossi in 1560, but he managed to complete only seven of them.

In the original project, this series of sculptures was supposed to decorate a fountain in the Boboli Gardens.

Since 1592, these statues have been located in the Salone dei Cinquecento, with the exception of a brief period when Florence was capital, when they were moved to the Bargello Palace.

These sculptures represent the following scenes: Hercules and Cacus, Hercules and the Centaur Nessus, Hercules and Antaeus, Hercules and Diomedes, Hercules and the Boar Erymanthian, and Hercules and Hippolyta.

The seventh group, Hercules with the sphere of Atlas, is now at the entrance to the Villa di Poggio Imperiale.

Hercules is the mythological hero that best embodies Greek freedom and heroism: for this reason, the Republic of Florence and the Medici loved the stories of Hercules very much and often celebrated them with art.

Hercules embodied liberty as David—the hero who defeated Goliath— and who, not surprisingly, was chosen to stand at the entrance of the Palazzo Vecchio.

In Graikų mitologija, Hercules embodies courage and perseverance. At the end of his twelve labors he conquers immortality, which is the quality of all right and fair creatures.

If you want to know all about Hercules, we have a free e-book to suggest: Myths of Greece and Rome, by Hélène Adeline Guerber.

In his youth, Hercules did not know what to do with his fate. Then two women—Softness and Virtue—appeared to him and offered him a choice between a life of pleasure and joy and one of toil and glory.

Hercules chose the latter and had to face the twelve labors: Hercules and Diomedes is one of these episodes.

During the course of his twelve labors, Hercules, the strongest of the gods, also found time to remedy injustice and abuse.

In the Hercules and Diomedes episode, Eurystheus—to which Hercules was subjected according to the will of Zeus—commanded Hercules to seize the mares of Diomedes and bring them to Mycenae, the city where Eurystheus was king.

Diomedes, son of the cruel god Ares, was a despot and reigned over the Bistoni in Thrace.

He had some wild mares, spitting fire and flames from their nostrils.

As he was cruel, Diomedes used to feed them with the poor who were shipwrecked by storms off the coast of Thrace.

Heraklis, with little effort, reached Thrace, captured and tied Diomedes, and fed him to his own mares.

When the horses had eaten their own master, Hercules brought them to Mycenae as promised, and Eurystheus set them free.

The statue in the Hall of the Five Hundred succeeds very well in representing a right punishment for tyrants.

Kodėl? You can find out the description given by Vayentha, the shadow character of Dan Brown’s Inferno:

The sculpture depicted the two heroes of Greek mythology—both stark naked—locked in a wrestling match. Hercules was holding Diomedes upside down, preparing to throw him, while Diomedes was tightly gripping Hercules’ penis, as if to say, “Are you sure you want to throw me?”

Florence Inferno is a blog about the Florentine mysteries, symbols, and places that are mentioned in Dan Brown’s latest novel Inferno, and much more about the city. We also offer a guided Inferno walking tour, which follows the footsteps of Robert and Sienna, as well as an an eBook with an audio version.

It is nice to be able to see the places, sculptures, paintings, etc that are depicted in the book. Thank you for this.


ISIS' Attack on Ancient History Called a 'War Crime'

Already notorious for videos of beheadings and executions, the extremist group that calls itself the Islamic State, or ISIS, has recently taken aim at archaeological ruins and relics in attacks that international leaders say amount to a "war crime."

Last week, ISIS released a video of the group ransacking the Mosul Museum in northern Iraq. Yesterday (March 5), Iraq's Ministry of Culture announced that ISIS had razed one of the famous capitals of the Assyrian empire, the 3,300-year-old city of Nimrud, near the banks of the Tigris River.

"The deliberate destruction of cultural heritage constitutes a war crime," UNESCO Director General Irina Bokova said in a statement today. [In Photos: See the Treasures of Mesopotamia]

"This is yet another attack against the Iraqi people, reminding us that nothing is safe from the cultural cleansing underway in the country: It targets human lives, minorities, and is marked by the systematic destruction of humanity's ancient heritage," Bokova said. She called on political and religious leaders to condemn the destruction, and added that she had alerted the U.N. Security Council and the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court.

'Amazingly dangerous situation'

The bulldozing of Nimrud was especially shocking because it is one of the most important archaeological sites not just in Mesopotamia, but the world, said Ihsan Fethi, director of the Iraqi Architects Society.

"It was a crime against anything any civilized person would believe," Fethi added.

Nimrud covers nearly 2 square miles (5 square kilometers) and has sprawling palaces, temples and a citadel. The city was built by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser I in the 13th century B.C. A few centuries later, it became the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, considered by some scholars to be the first true empire in world history.

You hardly had to go to Nimrud to appreciate its architecture and artwork. Today, museums like the Louvre in Paris and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York display Nimrud's statues of human-headed winged beasts, known as lamassu, as well as intricately carved reliefs showing lions, kings, gods and scenes of battle that once decorated palace walls.

Nimrud has a long history of excavations by Western archaeologists, going back to the mid-19th century. Sir Austen Henry Layard brought reliefs from the ancient city to the British Museum and other collections in the late 1840s and 1850s. One hundred years later, another British archaeologist, Max Mallowan, directed excavations at Nimrud. (His wife, the mystery novelist Agatha Christie, often joined the expeditions.)

Still, Fethi estimated that only 15 to 20 percent of the city had been excavated, and the site possibly hides more discoveries, which, at least in the near future, have little chance of being explored.

"This is an amazingly dangerous situation," Fethi said. "The longer [ISIS] stay, the more destruction we'll see."

Fethi worries that the next target could be the ancient city of Hatra — another UNESCO World Heritage Site that was founded in the third century B.C., some 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Mosul. (Those who don't know Hatra for its impressive temples and architecture might know the ancient city from its cameo in "The Exorcist.") [See Photos of Amazing UNESCO World Heritage Sites]

Documenting the damage

The events have been both heartbreaking and frustrating for archaeologists and cultural heritage specialists watching from afar.

"We can express outrage and highlight the enormous loss that's going on — and the significance of that loss — but beyond that, it's extremely difficult to do anything," said Paul Collins of the British Institute for the Study of Iraq.

For now, some experts are trying to at least take stock of what may have been lost.

Christopher Jones, a doctoral student who is studying the history of the ancient Near East at Columbia University, said he downloaded the video of ISIS pillaging the Mosul Museum last week and went through the footage bit by bit, taking screenshots and notes. On his blog, Gates of Nineveh, Jones published a two-part post describing the objects he could identify.

He had to turn to older images from inside the museum and obscure publications — older books and academic papers, mostly in Arabic — to piece together a picture of what was destroyed. Some of the objects that were smashed at the Mosul Museum were clearly replicas.

"You can tell from some of them by the way they break," Jones said. Plaster casts tend to shatter, while authentically ancient stone sculptures are much more durable when they're toppled over.

Some of the more dramatic scenes in the ISIS video seem to involve replicas or casts. In one part of the video, a plaster copy of a statue of Hercules is pushed to the floor, and it immediately smashes into thousands of little pieces, kicking up a cloud of white dust. In another scene, a sculpture of a face hanging on the wall of the museum's Hatra Hall falls to the floor in slow motion after a man in a purple polo shirt takes a sledgehammer to it. Jones spoke to Lucinda Dirven, an expert on Hatra, who thinks the face could be a plaster cast of one of the masks that was built into a wall at the ancient city.

That Hercules statue was listed as one of the four replicas in the Hatra Hall, according to a basic inventory of the Mosul Museum that was shared on the IraqCrisis cultural heritage mailing list. But there were 30 other objects from the same gallery listed as authentic, including four statues of kings from Hatra. All four of those statues seem to have been destroyed — a 15 percent loss of all existing statues of Hatrene kings, as just 27 were known, Jones said.

Besides the Hatra Hall, the Mosul Museum has two other galleries: one dedicated to Assyrian art with reliefs and statues from Nimrud and Nineveh (another ancient Assyrian capital) and an Islamic hall, which was not shown in the video.

That video also cut to footage taken beyond the walls of the museum, at Nineveh. It showed men using power tools to destroy the colossal lamassu that stood guard at the Nergal Gate Museum. The winged statues were among the few that hadn't already been shipped off to other museums.

"Those were some of the few lamassu that were still in situ," Jones said.

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